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The Construction-Operations Building information exchange (COBie) format is the international standard for the exchange of information about managed facility assets. 
COBie does not add new requirements to contracts
It simply changes the format of existing deliverables from paper documents and proprietary formats, to an open, international standard format.
 While COBie provides the format for the exchange of required asset information, it does not provide details on what information is to be provided when, and by whom. This Guide provides best-practice guidelines for these requirements. This Guide can be considered the “commentary” that accompanies the COBie format specification. To use this guide, customizations reflecting regional practices, specialized project types, and client’s requirements should be documented in Appendix A. The correct application of the COBie Guide may then be reference directly in appropriate specifications.
 As of 2012 over twenty commercial software products support COBie. These products cover the entire facility life-cycle from planning, design, construction, commissioning to operations, maintenance, and space management. Software implementers will find the information in Appendix B helpful for low-level mapping of required properties.
Governance planning is even more important in SharePoint Server 2010 because the increased emphasis and availability of social computing features means that there are more types of content to govern. In addition, because SharePoint Server 2010 offers new capabilities to manage metadata at the enterprise level, you will need to consider the addition of a new organizational role that plans and monitors metadata attributes across your organization. So, even if you have already defined a well-documented governance plan for your SharePoint Server 2007 environment, you will need to adapt your plan to incorporate the SharePoint Server 2010 features that you plan to deploy. We’ll discuss these areas in more detail later in the white paper, but here are some of the governance areas that are new to SharePoint Server 2010:

• SharePoint Server 2010 offers users a far more participatory role in the solution information architecture through the use of “social data” such as tags, bookmarks and ratings. Users need to understand and internalize the value proposition for leveraging these features. Solution designers will likely need to provide both guidance and encouragement for their use.

• SharePoint Server 2010 introduces new capabilities for sharing metadata across multiple site collections and even server farms which require planning and control. You will need to consider the addition of a new role (or at least a new responsibility to an existing role) to manage and maintain the dictionary of shared metadata.

• SharePoint Server 2010 includes new and more user-friendly records management capabilities such as the ability to declare a record “in place.” While many organizations have records management plans and policies for their SharePoint Server 2007 implementations, enforcing and acting on these plans has not been consistent. The new records management capabilities introduce an opportunity to create and enforce your records management plan.

• SharePoint Server 2010 offers many more opportunities for users to customize their sites with easy-to-apply themes, create custom designs with Microsoft® SharePoint® Designer, and use sandboxed solutions to create custom solutions. Your Governance Plan now needs to include decisions regarding how, where, and when to allow configuration by using these expanded capabilities.

• SharePoint Server 2010 does a better job of handling lists with large amounts of data. However, there is still a need to ensure that users understand the kind and quantity of information that they should store in SharePoint Server. Through a new feature, SharePoint Server 2010 can automatically restrict user queries of large lists by using Resource Throttling. This is a policy setting and should be considered when defining a plan for overall governance because it can impact overall usability of the system.

• SharePoint Server 2010 can also assist in partitioning large amounts of data through a feature called the Content Organizer. Through the content organizer, documents can be routed into folders and libraries based on metadata and other factors. The downside is that users may not understand where their document landed and should be addressed in the overall plan for data management.

• Finally, SharePoint Server 2010 introduces a feature called sandboxed solutions, which enables the site collection administrator to directly upload customization elements such as Web Parts. Within your governance plan, you should have a customization policies section that describes how you will deal with the numerous ways to create solutions that customize SharePoint Server.


The objective of wireframing is to have the basic structure and layout of product web page ready. Wireframes do not need to talk about css (colors, fonts, or exact xx.px of padding), and wireframes do not present the UX. For UX, wireframes need to be prototyped and for css, we have guidelines in the product technical design document, and in product development style guide.
Wireframes provide a sketch level presentation to the functional scope of product. Even if the requirements are clearly documented and even if the product design specifications and guidelines are clearly defined, wireframes act as a blueprint for product design which is important for the design team. Wireframes are particularly important for products where there are no design guidelines and need to start from scratch.
A classic example of why wireframes may be needed:
► If there is no sketch or any guidelines for product design
► If there is no product or website as example or reference
► When free to explore fully and use experiences and skills
► When feeling clueless for how to start the product design process

Where do risk come from? 
Let's understand this risk comes from all. It comes from the people involved, the structure that is the management structure and the systems of the organization the technology and the tasks that you are planning to work. Risk are induced by the stakeholders it could be the employees the contractors, competitors, financial institutions, regulatory agencies the whole lot of works around Everybody induces risk in any project.
Clarifying the difference between a risk and problem because of intermixing the two:
Risk is a possibility of something that may occur in the future it has its origins as explained earlier in uncertainty and as on today you have to identify for the future so that you take some actions as on today.
Problem is a certainty it has already happened because it was not anticipated earlier and requires immediate action.

If risk is not identified and managed surely it will lead to a problem, factors influencing a typical project to risk, of course as I said the uncertainty it can be high uncertainty, low uncertainty it can be few unknowns or lots of unknowns as seen again it comes down to a 4 by 4 matrix when it is a low uncertainty and few unknowns that kind of a project requires a process definition that means the project processes and outcomes are certain all have to control is project processes and outcomes as long we has the uncertainty increases and lots of unknowns coming you are slowly moving towards understanding what has happened earlier or similar projects.
That means focus shifts to knowledge management, that needs to have knowledge base of similar projects to predict what can possibly go wrong with the project that you are going to handle today.
Microsoft Hyper-V may be popular because it comes for free as part of the Windows Server license, but that doesn’t mean IT managers should ignore best practices when managing a virtual environment. This is especially true as the hypervisor market becomes more commoditized.

Vendors today offer the actual virtualization layer for free and make their profit on management. Therefore it’s essential to examine each vendor’s suite of management tools and to choose what’s best for your enterprise’s infrastructure.

There are Hyper-V tools for small, midsized and large organizations and they can benefit each environment.

Managing Hyper-V installations
Virtualization isn’t just for large IT shops anymore. In fact, it has led to major savings for smaller businesses with just a few servers. Using Hyper-V’s integrated tools makes sense in these scenarios. For instance, the built-in Hyper-V Manager is the obvious no-cost choice when managing only one or two servers since IT managers can create and manage them on a single system easily.